The Packaging Industry and How We Can Consume Differently, Part 4

Last updated July 3, 2021.

Plastic packaging waste from my household, February 2017. Bottles, fruit container, yogurt cup, plastic bags, etc. Photo by me
Plastic packaging waste from my household, February 2017. I started doing trash audits, inspired by Beth Terry at and I realized how much plastic, mostly in the form of packaging, that I had to start eliminating. Photo by me

In my first article about packaging, I told you about packaging history, current problems with packaging, and greenwashing. I wrote about the misconceptions surrounding the terms biodegradable and compostable in my second article. In my third article, we explored bioplastics. Today, we will look at some other practices companies sometimes use to reduce their carbon footprint.

Image of a footprint with "CO2" over a map of the world
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay


The demand for consumer goods is on the rise, especially with the population exponentially increasing. One way companies save money is to practice lightweighting, and sometimes it can reduce their environmental impact. However, this practice can also be harmful to the environment.

What is lightweighting? “A packaging trend wherein conventional packaging is replaced with a lighter-weight alternative and/or the overall amount of material used in packaging is reduced,” as defined in The Future of Packaging.1

Lighter weight items are cheaper to ship, saving companies money on fuel which also creates fewer emissions. But creating lighter packaging means replacing conventional packaging, such as glass, with lighter weight alternatives, like plastic. This has made plastic the preferred material and unfortunately, much of that plastic is not recycled.

Another lightweighting method is making the materials thinner. PET bottles and aluminum cans use about 30% less material than they did in the 1980s. Lush Cosmetics worked with their bottling manufacturer to make their bottles 10% thinner, and this saved nearly 13,500 pounds of plastic in 2016.

“Although lightweighting gains have been made for all containers as a result of these technological efficiencies, these gains are overshadowed by huge increases in per capita consumption and total beverage sales (especially for bottled water…sports drinks and energy drinks) as well as stagnant or shrinking recycling rates. All of these factors lead to vastly more container material” not getting recycled. –Bottled Up: Beverage Container Recycling Stagnates2

Convenience Items

Lightweighting makes consumer goods cheaper and easier to access, especially in the form of convenience items. Think about coffee pods, applesauce pouches, and fresh vegetables ready to be steamed in plastic. But at what cost does this convenience come? This packaging is not recyclable in most municipalities and goes straight to landfills. Some can be sent to a specialty recycler, like Terracycle, but that is not a long-term practical solution.

Example of Coffee pod or “K-Cup”. I used these for several years before I realized the harm they were causing.
Example of an applesauce pouch, now also sold as smoothie blends and yogurt pouches. I purchased these for several years before I realized how plastic was damaging our environment.

“This is lightweighting’s biggest problem: no economic recycling model has yet emerged due to the technical challenges in processing and recovering the base materials,” -Chris Daly, Vice President of Environmental Sustainability, Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa, PepsiCo3


Sales of bottled water, especially in plastic, now exceed those of other non-alcoholic bottled beverages in the US. Here is a graph that exhibits the rapid growth:

Graph of plastic bottle water sales
Graph from the Container Recycling Institute

A few companies now sell bottled water in aluminum, including the brands Open Water4 and CanO Water.5 In summer 2019, PepsiCo announced that they would stop selling Bubly seltzer water in plastic bottles and switch to aluminum cans. They also planned to test switching Aquafina to aluminum cans.6

Replacing plastic with aluminum can be a positive packaging change. This is not a new idea, as brands like LaCroix water have been in aluminum for years. Aluminum is 100% recyclable, assuming they are free from plastic film lining, and almost 75% of all aluminum produced in the U.S. is still in use today, according to the Aluminum Association.7 Recycling aluminum uses significantly less energy because it is heated at a much lower temperature than using bauxite, the virgin raw material used to make aluminum.

However, the real solution is to drink tap water and carry your own reusable metal or glass water container.

Image of Open Water aluminum bottles

“Bottled water is healthy and convenient, but single-use plastic bottles are wreaking havoc on our environment, and especially our oceans.”8

Products in Cartons

Image of Boxed Water with beach background
Photo by Boxed Water Is Better on Unsplash

Cartons are another example of lightweighting, as the containers are lighter to transport. Common examples of products sold in cartons include milk, juice, broth, and products like Boxed Water. However, cartons’ end of life is usually highly problematic because they contain plastic and often aren’t recycled.

Cartons are made of paper and lined with plastic. They haven’t been wax coated since the 1940s, as noted by Beth Terry.9 All cartons have multiple layers, with several layers of polyethylene on the interior and exterior, and some have a metallic foil layer as well. Remember that some polyethylenes contain toxins linked to human health problems.

Diagrams of cartons and the layers of materials.
Diagrams from the Carton Council

Recyclability is Poor

Cartons are recyclable in theory, but it is not common, in large part because it is difficult to separate the layers. Remember, that even if your local recycler “accepts” these items for recycling, they are often landfilled. This is true across the United States because it is still cheaper to use virgin materials over recycled materials. The Carton Council advertises cartons as recyclable and asserts that if you cannot recycle them where you live, you can ship at your own cost to certain facilities.10 However, I cleaned and saved cartons from non-dairy milk and broth for several months and found it was cost-prohibitive to ship. I found this discouraging and impractical.

A lot of effort is required to recycle cartons. The recycler shreds the cartons, sanitizes them, and ties the shreds into bales. A pulp mill that has the appropriate machinery can buy the bales from the recycler, and the polyethylene coating must be separated from the paper and strained off for re-use by a plastics manufacturer. The shredded cartons can then reprocessed into pulp for paper.11 That’s a lot of work for a type of material we can just avoid buying.

Swanson chicken broth in a shelf stable carton
Swanson chicken broth in a shelf-stable carton

It’s best to just avoid these if possible since we can’t be sure they’re getting recycled and also because of the risk of toxins in the plastic lining. The paper in these cartons might break down in the environment but the plastic will infect the land and water for decades or longer.


We have power as consumers. Companies want to sell us their goods, presumably more than they want to sell us the packaging. So avoid purchasing products in packaging that you don’t like or support.

Instead, purchase items in bulk in your own containers, or buy goods in metal or glass instead of plastic or cartons. Buy a reusable beverage container to avoid buying drinks in plastic and avoid convenience packaging since it is rarely recyclable.

Thanks for reading, and please subscribe! In my next post, I’ll explain how the manufacturers should become part of the solution.


“If you want to eliminate waste in your life – and in the world – the answers will always come down to one simple thing: consume differently.” -Tom Szaky


  1. Book, The Future of Packaging: From Linear to Circular, edited by Tom Szaky, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 2019.
  2. Report, Bottled Up: Beverage Container Recycling Stagnates (2000-2010),, accessed July 3, 2021.
  3. Book, The Future of Packaging: From Linear to Circular, edited by Tom Szaky, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 2019.
  4. Website, Open Water, accessed July 3, 2021.
  5. Website, CanO Water, accessed July 3, 2021.
  6. Press release, “PepsiCo Advances Circular Economy for Plastics; Announces LIFEWTR® Packaging with 100% Recycled Plastic and Elimination of Plastic Bottles for bubly™,” June 27, 2019.
  7. Page, “Recycling,” The Aluminum Association, accessed July 3, 2021.
  8. Page, “Why Aluminum,” Open Water, accessed July 3, 2021.
  9. Post, “Hidden Plastic,”, November 2, 2007.
  10. Page, “What To Do When Your City Doesn’t Recycle Cartons?” The Carton Council, accessed July 3, 2021.
  11. Page, “Milk Cartons,” How Products Are Made, Volume 4, accessed July 3, 2021.

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